mughal empire upsc

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Aurangzeb imprisoned his father and made himself the Badshah in 1658. Humayun means “fortune” but he remained the most unfortunate ruler of the Mughal Empire. It may be considered the precursor of the Taj Mahal. To know more about the UPSC 2021, check the linked article. Civil Services (Prelims) Examination Special Quick Revision Notes Mughal Empire - II (Indian History). Princes of royal blood received even higher ranks. Download Mughal Architecture PDF in English and Hindi for UPSC exam here. Raja Todarmal: Raja Todarmal was Akbar’s finance or revenue minister. Babur also defeated the Afgans in battle of Gogra in Bihar. Delhi. The Moti Masjid in Agra was constructed by Shah Jahan. In 1675, he executed 9th Sikh Guru, Guru Teg Behadur because of his reluctance to accept Islam. India was able to export food items like rice and sugar to the neighbouring countries. He built many forts and the most famous one was the Agra Fort. Aurangzeb, the last Great Mughal emperor had died and left his Empire in chaos. He introduced the National Highway concept for the first time in India. It was known as Dahsala System which was completed in 1580. His son Dara Shikoh translated the Bhagavat Gita and Upanishads into the Persian language. Generally, most of the accounts describe the wealth and prosperity of India and also the lavish life of the nobles. Jobs Regulations about highway robbery and theft, Free inheritance of property of deceased person, Prohibition of sale of wine and of all kinds of intoxicating liquor, Abolition of inhuman corporal punishments, Prohibition of forcible seizure of property, Building of hospitals and appointment of physicians to attend the sick, Prohibition of slaughter of animals on certain days, General confirmation of mansabs and jagirs, Confirmation of aima lands i.e. He earned the title Insan-i-Kamil (Perfect Man), among the Mughals. Who introduced the gun power in the Indian subcontinent? But by the close of the century it had shrunk to a few kilometres around Delhi. The administrative organization of the Mughal Empire allowed it to prosper for more than two centuries before being overrun by the Marathas. (Pietra dura). The Mughal Empire, Mogul or Moghul Empire, was an early-modern empire in South Asia. Gujarat – Was an entry point of foreign goods from where fine textiles and silk were taken to north India. The Mughal reign was a crucial phase in Indian History. The Pietra Dura method was used on a large scale in the Taj Mahal. The Purnakwila was constructed by Humayun but its construction was completed by Shershah. Many devotional works including the Ramayana and Mahabharata were translated into regional languages. After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, a war of succession began amongst his three surviving sons, Muazzam – the governor of Kabul, Azam-the governor of … He ascended the throne in 1628. Jahangir introduced the use of Marble instead of red sandstone and use of Pietradura for decorative purposes. Humayun tomb is known as the predecessor of Tajmahal because Taj was modeled after this, also known as a dormitory of the house of Timur. Now it is kept at the London Tower Museum, Britain. Wealthy people dressed in silk and cotton clothes and the poor people dressed minimally. The most important trading communities in south India. He married Mehrunnisa, an Afghan widow in 1611 and Later he gave her the titles Noor Mahal (light of the palace), Noor Jahan (light of the world) and Padshah Begum. The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download contains detailed study notes for this topic. He was assassinated in 1708. For some two centuries, the empire stretched from the outer fringes of the Indus basin in the west, northern Afghanistan in the northwest, and Kashmir in the north, to the highlands of present-day Assam and Bangladesh in the east, and the … Humayun divided the empire among his brothers but this proved to … It was evident in the sphere of art and architecture, painting, music and literature. MUGHAL EMPIRE. The king was assisted by four important ministers: land revenue administration with the help of Raja Todar Mal. The import of gold and silver balanced of trade. He was the court Musician of Akbar. These incidents show that Akbar’s policy of religious liberty and equality was gradually being forsaken and religious discrimination, began under Jahangir, was gaining in virulence and scope. He then assumed the title of ‘Ghazi’. Jahangir was a lover of art, literature and particularly painting. This document is highly rated by UPSC students and has been viewed 707 times. In the Battle of Chausa, 1539, Humayun was defeated by Shershah Suri. The most influential Hindi poet was Tulsidas, who wrote the Hindi version of the Ramayana, the Ramcharitmanas. There are accounts of foreigners as well that give information about the poverty and sufferings of ordinary people such as peasants and artisans. The Diwan-i- Aam, Diwan-i-Khas and the Moti Masjid are situated inside the Red fort. It contains all the architectural forms developed by the Mughals. He employed a number of painters like Abul Hasan, Bishan Das, Madhu, Anant, Manohar, Govardhan and Ustad Mansur. Babur's reign was brief (1526-1530) but he laid the foundation of the Mughal Empire in India. In 1533 Humayun built the city of Dinpanah (world refuge) in Delhi. Ustad Iza, a Turkish/ Persian was its architect. During the Fifteenth century, Samarqand and Herat became the cultural centres of West … Its part from Delhi to Amritsar is known as National Highway -1. During these long years the most valiant struggle from the aide of Marwar was fought by He married Arjumand Benu Begum, daughter of Asaf Khan, brother of Noor Jahan. Banjaras – Another class of traders specialized in carrying bulk goods, they also moved long distances with their goods on the back of oxen. In this article on Medieval India, we cover the Mughal Dynasty. Regional languages such as Bengali, Oriya, Rajasthani and Gujarati had also developed during this period. In this article, you will find the reasons for the decline of Mughal empire for GS History preparation in UPSC … Chief Shiqdar (law and order) and Chief Munsif (judge) were the two officers in charge of the administration in each sarkar. All appointments and promotions as well as dismissals were directly made by the emperor. This method became more popular during the reign of Shah Jahan. From 1556 to 1707, during the heyday of its fabulous wealth and glory, the Mughal Empire was a fairly efficient and … He opened Ibadat Khana to people of all religions and took liberal views in discussing on religions. Baswan, Miskina and Daswant attained great positions as Akabar’s court as artists. All the three brothers of Humayun proved not only incapable but disloyal as well to their elder brother. Jahangir and Shah Jahan were also fond of music. 8) It was constructed wholly of white marble with floral designs made of semi-precious stones on the walls. To know more about the UPSC 2021, check the linked article. As a result of his efforts, first English factory was established at Surat in Gujarat. Humayun became the Mughal Emperor on 29 December 1530 at the age of 23. Commercial crops such as indigo, oil-seeds, cotton and sugarcane were also cultivated. Each sarkar was divided into several parganas. The Portuguese had authority over Goa under their viceroy. Nur Jahan built the tomb of Itimaddaulah at Agra. Shah Jahan was a famous lyricist who wrote in Hindi. In 1606 Jahangir executed fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjun Dev, because he helped Jahangir’s son Prince Khusru to rebel against him. Similarly, destruction took place in Allahabad, Gujarat and Kashmir. The Mughal Empire at its zenith commanded resources unprecedented in Indian history and covered almost the entire subcontinent. Babur was the founder of Mughal Empire. Many historical works were written during this period. HELPFUL FOR UPSC PRELIMS, MAINS, SSC,CDS,NDA. The mansabdari system introduced by Akbar was a unique feature of the administrative system of the Mughal Empire. Akbar built Buland Darwaza at Fatehpur Sikri in 1601 to commemorate his victory over Gujarat. The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download. Other important buildings at Fatehpur Sikri are Jodha Bai’s palace and Panch Mahal with five storeys. He defeated Dara and crowned himself under the title “Alamgir”. Later in 1540 he completely defeated Humayun in the Battle of Kanauj and founded the Sur dynasty. Mian Tansen: His original name was Ram Thanu Pande. The leadership that emerged was weak and ineffective. Babur . In 1639, he started the construction of Red Fort in Delhi on the model of Agra fort built by Akbar. She later came to be known as Mumtaz Mahal which means beloved of the Palace. In the Battle of Chausa, 1539, Sherkhan defeated Humayun for the first time and assumed the name Shershah. It is known as Bibi ka Makbara. Bengal – Exported sugar, rice as well as delicate muslin and silk. Know Architecture during Mughals and contemporary Sur, Sikh and Rajput Rulers in India. Akbar introduced the Mansabdari system in his administration. It was abducted from here by Nadir Shah in 1739 during his Indian invasion (Persian conqueror). He defeated ibrahim lodhi in the first Battle of Panipat in 1526 and established Mughal rule in India. Mughal paintings reached its climax during the reign of Jahangir. In 1638 Shah Jahan built his new capital Shahjahanabad in Delhi and shifted the capital from Agra to there. In India, the Mughal Empire was one … Dec 20, 2020 - The Mughal Empire UPSC Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of UPSC. In 1679 Aurangzeb constructed the tomb of his only wife Rabbia-ud-daura at Aurangabad in Maharashtra. He built Moti Masjid at Lahore and his own mausoleum at Shahdara. Babur was a descendant of Timur on his father’s side and of Chengiz Khan on the side of his mother. A treaty made the Qutub Shahi ruler a vassal of the Mughal empire. office, position, or rank) in the Mughal administration indicated the rank of its holder (mansabdar) in the official hierarchy. After the lapse of 15 years, Humayun re-captured the Empire by defeating the last Sur ruler Sikandar Shah Suri in the Battle of Sirhind, 1555, after which he ruled only for 6 months. Aurangzeb is known as ‘Zinda Pir’ or living saint because of his simple life. Shershah constructed the Grand Trunk Road from Calcutta to Amritsar. Mughals ruled India for almost 350 years. The Mughal Empire was a fairly efficient and centralized organisation with a vast complex of personnel, and information dedicated to the service of the emperor. He was a descendant of Timur (on his father’s side) and Genghis Khan (on his Mother’s side). In Rajasthan, Oswals, Maheshwaris, and Agarwals came to be called the Marwaris. Sawar rank indicated the number of cavalrymen of a person who was required to maintain. The Mughal reign was a crucial phase in Indian History. Humayun’s biography Humayun Namah was written by Humayun’s sister Gulbadan Begum. India became united under one rule, and had very prosperous cultural and political years during the Mughal rule. The leading poet of that period was his brother Abul Faizi. Mughal dynasty was founded by Babur who was invited by Aalam Khan Lodi, a discontented uncle of Ibrahim Lodi, to Invade India. He defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar in Battle of Khanwa in 1527 near Agra. Current Affairs The major imports into India were certain metals such as. 1.The second Battle of Panipat marked the real beginning of the Mughal Empire in India.. 2.Bairam Khan remained the protector and guardian of Akbar during the initial reign of Akbar.. 3.Akbar’s mother Hamida Banu Begum, … Departments under the Mughal Empire Important Departments Functions Diwan-i … In 1638 Shah Jahan made use of the political intrigues in the Persian empire and annexed Kandahar, conquered by Akbar and lost by Jahangir. During Akbar’s reign, the Humayun’s tomb was built at Delhi and it had a massive dome of marble. The land was also divided into four categories – Polaj (cultivated every year), Parauti (once in two years), Chachar (once in three or four years) and Banjar (once in five or more years). The Mughals brought Turko-Iranian culture into India and the Indian traditions were blended Turko-Iranian culture. The economic, social, and cultural conditions during the first half of the seventeenth century were flourishing like anything. He brought with him two painters – Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdal Samad to India. Historical works such as Akbar Nama also remained the main themes of Mughal paintings. The Jama Masjid at Delhi was built in red stone. He was a descendant of Timur (from the side of his father) … He reintroduced Jizyah and Pilgrimage tax. 768k watch mins. var urlmenu = document.getElementById('menu1'); In 1540 Shershah completely defeated Humayun in the Battle of Kanauj and founded the Sur dynasty. The rise of independent states led to the … Milk and milk products were surplus, salt and sugar were expensive, while ghee and oil were cheaper. This article throws light on the Mughal era in India like Economic & Social Life, Agriculture, Trade Growth, etc. Babur composed Tuzuk-i-Baburi which was translated into Persian as Baburnama by Abdur Rahim Khankhana. This article throws light on the Mughal era in India like Economic & Social Life, Agriculture, Trade Growth, etc. Ralph Fitch (a British traveler) had written about Patna (Bihar) as, “Here the women bedecked with silver and copper that it is strange to see, they use no shoes by reason of the rings of silver and copper they … The Mughal nobles were paid high salaries but their expenses were also the same. In 1631, he started the construction of Taj Mahal in memory of his wife and completed in 1653. Only the main points from the chapters are compiled below. urlmenu.onchange = function() { Every sawar had to maintain at least two horses. He established Zanjir-il-Adal – Chain of Justice in Agra Fort and was known for his strict administration of Justice. The Mughals were fond of laying gardens with running water. If you are new to UPSC Prelims and UPSC Mains, We recommend you to know about UPSC Prelims and UPSC Mains and also UPSC … The Portuguese introduced European painting in India during the reign of Shah Jahan. Humayun’s tomb is situated in Delhi which was built by Haji Begum. He formulated Akbar’s revenue system Zabti and Dashala systems. In the seventeenth century, the growth of foreign trade resulted in the increased import of gold and silver. UP-PCS A large variety of crops such as barley, gram, pulses, rice, and wheat were cultivated. Babur also established a tradition of Gardening by laying out a number of formal gardens with running water. Similar Classes. Share. Mughal dynasty, Muslim dynasty of Turkic-Mongol origin that ruled most of northern India from the early 16th to the mid-18th century. During Aurangzeb’s reign, Mughals expanded widely and became Pan-India Empire. The British exiled the last Mughal. 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