Wax under the nails of one bribed Mexican laborer in western Chihuahua enabled him to transfer tiny flakes of gold from his pockets to some samples, and his employer extracted a down payment on the mine of $100,000 from a San Francisco operator. If so, he must have had even wrier memories about it than about the Chrysolite, for a few years later gold was found at Mount Pisgah. Salt flats and saline wetlands have a certain aesthetic charm, but apparently not enough charisma to generate much public support for their conservation. Â The seller might impregnate the walls with gold but the wise buyer might ask to have the walls blasted to see what was inside the rock. âFrom my mine,â said Chicken Bill, with an off-hand wave. In 2006, more than 200 million tons of salt were produced in the world. Frustrated by these precautions, the salters then turned with fresh ingenuity to meddling with the samples themselves. But one morning the swindler applied the mud too late. In the old days, Chinese were often barred from California placer operations until after the whites had moved on. It seems those clever Irishmen had sneaked into his office the night before their testimony and “salted” his Holy Bible. To the Salt Mines With Ye, Ben Domenech Sarah Jones 11/25/2020. Mining produces a loud noise that may attract nearby predators; the larger salt node that's mined, the louder the noise. Mark Twain, in Roughing It , described how one such assayer at Virginia City, Nevada, was exposed when suspicious rivals sent him a fragment from a carpenterâs grindstone; the assayer said he found both silver and gold in it. Generally, the misrepresentations were a standard form of mining-camp bragging—but not always. Mining Camp author Brete Harte wrote: “The ways of a man with a maid are strange, but tame, when compared to a man with a … A howling storm snowed him in near an abandoned log cabin. The Khewra Salt Mine is one of the oldest and largest salt … The chips from each groove were individually sacked in stout canvas bags. Salt Mines Reborn. Production wells, which bring mining fluids to the surface, are not regulated under the UIC program. Assays of those pieces also revealed a high silver content. If you want to see them with your own eyes, join me for a stroll through the underground. There are two shafts in each Morton mine – one for personnel and one to lower materials and equipment into the mine, as well as to hoist the mined rock salt to the surface. A Chicken Bill might be content with a return of a thousand dollars or so, but big-money frauds preferred to work with mines whose various shafts and drifts had penetrated enough veins to suggest ore bodies of truly majestic scale. Visitors were understandably impressed. No sale resulted, however, because suspicions were properly aroused when five of the workers suddenly disappeared. Salt mines. The best one can do is to sit tight, growl though he may. Microscopic amounts of metal were enough to create such inflation. Newcomers, panting with desire for quick money, were so convinced that riches could be plucked carrotlike from the ground that they often believed any encouraging signs they saw. By then, however, it was too late. In the mining country of the Old West some men struck it rich without touching a shovel. And, of course, there were obliging souls ready to provide attractive sights. Luxurious rewards awaited the bunco artist who could make gold seem to appear in a hole where no gold actually existed, or the con man who could produce, for suspicious examining engineers, specimens of silver that assayed higher (as the gulled buyer discovered too late) than the ore body from which they supposedly came. The light began to dawn, and the would-be sellers hastened to their property. Could they look inside? Ownership and use of this claim is overseen by the Bureau of Land Management's Salt Lake Field Office under the serial number UMC276269. It stretches over 1.5 miles wide, 2 miles long, and covers an area of 2.7 million squares miles. The next morning the dried mud jiggled loose as the cable moved up and down; the mud fell to the bottom of the hole and raised the apparent values. A prospective buyer came to Arizona around 1900 to investigate a property near Prescott. Wages then ran roughly $2.50 a day, and Bill probably equated the sale with a yearâs workânot bad. The long, back-packing trudge up Fryer Hill winded them. From shop AlaskaVintage. bitten by the gold bug. Enough metal adhered to give high assay values to samples chipped from that face. Directed by Abner Biberman. 1955 Berchtesgaden Germany Salt Mines Tourists Riding Tram Car Funny Hats RPPC Real Photo Postcard Photograph Black White Photo AlaskaVintage. Five thousand people poured into Canon City, swarming through the hotels, hardware stores, groceries, and livery stables, buying supplies for prospecting trips. Most ores are friable and full of cracks. Why climb higher? The scheme worked. Repeated mill runs on the first 50,000 tons of ore showed that the samples had erred by about two per cent. Hence, they were willing to pay for claims that showed any trace of gold at all. The smart buyer also brought along his own geologist. An alert driller wondered why fresh mud was on a cable that had been idle all night. Gold mine of a Salt mine! Nevertheless, the hole was salted. Others preferred to paint the face of the ore bed with a solution of gold chloride or silver nitrate, as the case might be, or to squirt the liquid into cracks with a syringe. The tourists rushed to an assayer and had the ore appraised. Doctored quids were sometimes used by the sellers of California placer mines. Nor were workers allowed to wear their fingernails long. Tabor took an estimated $150,000 from it before selling out. No, he was not interested in selling the mine. The samples, sent to London for assaying, indicated a bonanzaârock containing five per cent copper, or a hundred pounds of metal per ton. Learning that Lovell was a miner (he did have a few holes scattered here and there, just in case), they plied him with so many questions that he decided to rig a show. The plot failed. Hearing that a certain Chinaman was shopping around Yreka for claims, and was talking in terms of $5,000, two salters rushed to their abandoned holdings, sprinkled five hundred dollarsâ worth of gold dust in the gravel, and let the Oriental test it. Â To counter this, the buyer could insist they use the dynamite sticks he’d brought along for just such an occasion. Read more >>, The magazine was forced to suspend print publication in 2013, but a group of volunteers saved the archives and relaunched it in digital form in 2017. Daily COVID-19 deaths in U.S. top 3,000 for the first time. His latest book is 2018âsÂ Arizona Oddities: A Land of Anomalies and Tamales.Â Send your question, with your city/state of residence, toÂ email@example.comÂ or Ask the Marshall, P.O. It lies underground as most do. Â The stock went up and all five sold at a tremendous profit. They started to dig where they were. Or, given the proper circumstances, they would slit the bags open, salt them, and sew them up again. A type of property especially favored for salting was one that had started as a bonanza operation but whose vein was threatening to turn barren as the depth increased. Another favorite device was to load a shotgun shell with coin shavings and fire the charge at close range against the rock. He remained outside (proof of his indifference), and when the pair reached the breast of the tunnel they hurriedly knocked off some specimens and hid them in their pockets. Although accurate evaluation of the mine rather than detection of fraud was the samplerâs main purpose, gigantic swindles became so common that textbooks on mining still outline the basic tricks. Aware that Native Americans had once harvested salt rock from their farmland, Milo and Lamar Bosshardt borrowed a little money and went into the salt business with little more than sledgehammers, picks, and a determination to provide for their families. Some managed to take wax impressions of the engineerâs seals, make duplicates, open and salt the sacks at leisure, and reseal them with the counterfeit seals. The Salt Mines explores the lives of Sara, Gigi and Giovanna, three Latina transwomen who for years have lived on the streets of Manhattan supporting their drug addictions through sex work.They made their temporary home inside broken garbage trucks that the sanitation department keeps next to the salt deposits used in the winter to melt the snow. Every so often the sludge was raised to the surface, dried, and assayed. Excited investors built a railroad into the area, erected a mill, and built tennis courts, a golf links, and a polo field to go with houses staffed with butlers who astounded the local populace by serving afternoon tea. A careless English engineer let his Mexican crew collect samples without adequate supervision. During the last half of the 19th century the West, especially places like Arizona were perceived as veritable treasure troves of gold and silver. The hole didnât look like much, but at its mouth was a small pile of that fancy ore, which Bill was busily sacking. Word spread instantaneously, and Leadvilleâs boom soared. Sure enough, the scoundrel had carefully washed their five hundred dollarsâ worth of salt out of the gravel and had vanishedâperhaps to pull the trick on over-eager swindlers somewhere else. Then, with extreme patience and endless labor, the Orientals managed to rework the sifted ground at a profit. Salt is found in nodes and mine carts throughout the mines, and players can mine it by pressing the Heavy attack button (keyboard default D). Â “No Irish Catholic would dare place his hand on the Holy Bible and lie,” he declared. Investors risking $100,000 or more seldom bought such a property without first seeking the advice of trained engineers. Robert S. Sawin and Rex C. Buchanan. He admitted to finding color, but asked for time to make up his mind. Salting A Gold Mine January 10, 2017 Marshall Trimble Gold rush mining scene, photographed by Robert Vance circa 1850. Morton Salt mines and stockpiles salt throughout the year to supply customers with salt whether by vessel, barge, rail, or truck. Â Others might take a shotgun, load the charge with gold dust and blast the walls of the shaft, impregnating them with particles of gold. Values were intriguingâthanks to tiny clay pills, each containing a grain of gold, dropped into the gravel by native workers. The next day, as he was again yarning with the pair on the porch, a pack train shuffled by, the mules loaded with bulging ore sacks. Hoping to outfox Bill, they learned the location of his mine and wandered out to see it âmere tourist curiosity, of course. More cautious American investors took over the operation a few years later and spent $300,000 to sample the mine. Freighters who broke through the road several days later found him hale and fat, surrounded by feathers and frozen chicken remains. Ashes from the pipes of native women employed on the sluicing operations at the head of the Jaina River in the Dominican Republic salted those alluvial deposits enough to bleed thousands of dollars from a Boston mining concern. Ever afterward he was called Chicken Bill. Introduction. Some bunco artists tamped minute fillings of dental gold into tiny cavities in the rock. A prospective buyer chemically treated, milled, and amalgamated several tons of the âore.â Dazzled by the returns, the buyer all but sprained his wrist reaching for his checkbook and did not learn the truth until, on starting his own operation, he discovered a battered coin lodged in a crevice. Real Salt is as real as it gets: unrefined, unprocessed, nothing added, nothing removed. Â Soon after, the stock value went in the tank, costing the owner a chunk of money. The swindler did it by sprinkling gold dust into mud that he then smeared onto the cable attached to the bit. No one was handier at furnishing these tantalizing glimpses at high-value ore than William Lovell, champion fraud of Leadville, Colorado, during that famed silver campâs first frantic boom. A heavy drilling bit on the end of a stem was lifted a few feet by a cable run by a steam engine on the surface. The extension was granted, but at its end the buyer did not appear. The field developed into Cripple Creek, maker of at least twenty-eight millionaires. Salters were unfazed by canvas sample sacks with their wired-shut mouths and lead seals. Bill was one of the first to prospect on Fryer Hill, immediately north of the new camp at Leadville, but he was not as lucky as two Germans, August Rische and George Hook, who followed close behind him. Eventually mass-production techniques and an ore body of over a hundred million tons made the Ray mine one of Americaâs greatest producers. The first wagonload of ore netted them two hundred dollars. And this claim did not backfire, as the Chrysolite had: it stayed barren, while Bill settled down contentedly to another year of paid-up existence. From the outset, Lovell used more than a pick and shovel to bring him fortune. As engineers became more sophisticated, so did swindlers. When Matt is too busy to escort Kitty to a gold mine she inherited, she travels there alone and meets with claim jumpers and other difficulties. Most modern salt mines are privately operated or operated by large multinational companies … If the worthless specimens suddenly blossom with gold or silver, something is amiss and the buyer is well advised to quietly drop his options. More than half a century later, a skeptical, well-read California engineer trapped a fraudulent assayer in San Diego by exactly the same deviceâchips from a grindstone that the assayer declared to be worth fifteen dollars a ton in gold. But Tabor may not have been gullible so much as canny. Â Trying to stay one step ahead, the seller could install gold into the headsticks of his dynamite and when the charge went off, the interior would be salted. What happened, apparently, was that trade was languishing in the nearby railroad town of CaÃ±on City. One way is to invert the process by placing dummy sacks of barren rock among the legitimate samples. He gave each man a chunk of shiny ore and then ambled off to keep an appointment, so he said. Nor was it necessary to sprinkle the salt, as the fraudulent additive was called, throughout the exposed oreâthat would have been too expensiveâbut only in those samples, taken here and there, from which the valuation of the mine was calculated. Saying that he has been trying to get these mines operational since 2014, he informed that PM Modi had sanctioned Rs 3.5cr for the salt mines and work had resumed but the mines had to … The miners were given their jobs back and returned to the mine. Results can be disastrous. Â When taken internally it will pass through the body, exiting the body with high assay value. Morris, Cargill Salt in Lansing and Watkins Glen, Retsof Mine and also US Salt also in that town. The Reserve has 60 enormous caverns, typically 200 feet in diameter and 2,500 feet tall, and one “large enough for Chicago’s Willis Tower to fit inside with room to spare.” A man would bite off a chew, chomp it well, and spit into the pool of water he was using for washing the gravel in his gold pan. They naturally chipped away at the softest spots. But these methods did not go undetected. Free subscriptionÂ >> Â, Please consider a donation to help us keep this American treasure alive.Â Support with a donation>>. Informative, high tech complete with two slides and a train trip! Parts of this mine have been converted into a … Please support this 70-year tradition of trusted historical writing and the volunteers that sustain it with a donation to American Heritage. When business was good, they offered public guided tours, which was very popular with school groups. Engineer C. S. Haley told, in a 1913 issue of the Mining and Scientific Press , of a test hole that he carefully sealed against tampering during nights when the crew was away. Multicolored walls of a salt mine located 1,380 feet (420 meters) underground, near the town of Soligorsk, south of Minsk, Belarus. After earnest entreaties, the gulls managed to persuade Bill to part with the property. Although Rische and Hook sold their one-third interests in the mine for relatively modest sums (Hook got $98,000 and Rische, selling a little later, $273,000), Tabor held on to his grubstake third for a year. Immediately after the discovery of the Little Pittsburgh, Tabor quite naturally began buying claims all over the slope. In May, when their shaft was thirty feet deep, they ran into a fabulous vein later known as the Little Pittsburgh. The mines were owned and operated by The Detroit Salt and Manufacturing Company. The sacks were wired shut, sealed with a lead seal bearing the examinerâs âbrand,â and numbered according to location. Dusting a ton of ore with one eightieth of an ounce of gold, at its price of $20.67 per ounce, would add twenty-five cents to the value per tonâas would less than one quarter of an ounce of silver. Toward the close of the last century, churn drills were introduced for sampling ore bodies hundreds of feet beneath the surface of the earth. In addition to salt's well-known uses (such as table salt or road de-icing material), large caverns dissolved out of salt beds also are used to store natural gas, natural gas liquids (such as propane and butane), and other petroleum products. Â When it hit the floor the cover fell off and underneath was a Webster’s Dictionary. This was an extremely well done trip that had something for everyone in the family. It was really cooling undergroudns as well. Â They provided fertile ground for hucksters, shysters, con men and bamboozlers. According to experienced engineers, salting cannot be absolutely prevented; the most a prospective buyer can hope for is that he will detect the fraud in time. Â It didn’t take long for the owner to figure out what the five Irishmen had done but he couldn’t prove it. Bennager…, In 1904 Ben Ruby walks from the Yuma Territorial Prison after doing eight years on…, The story of rags-to-riches prospector Ed Schieffelin and his Lucky Cuss Mine is one of…. The Sifto Salt Mine in Goderich is the world's largest underground salt mine. Â He carefully salted the mine with his 12-guage shotgun, replacing the lead with fine placer gold. The salt mines were really interesting. The four operating salt mines are American Rock Salt in Mt. Â A seller bent on cleverly salting his mine could load himself on the substance and salt any crack, crevice as nature moved him. Hoping to revive it, certain merchants paid two Leadville neâer-do-wells, S. J. Bradley and D. G. Miller, two hundred dollars to dig a hole eighteen feet deep on a slope forty-five miles from Canon City, and to produce, supposedly from that hole, ore that assayed at $2,000 a ton. One suspicious engineer, investigating a mine on an island near Juneau, Alaska (selling price: $450,000), demanded that the owners and their men leave the island while he did his sampling. Chicken Billâs next victims were more typicalâtwo English tourists he met one day on the porch of a Leadville hotel. Since he had never offered to sell them the mine, the English dupes did not risk ridicule by taking the case to court. Clean canvas is spread to prevent adulteration from rock scattered on the ground. He named his purchase the Chrysolite and had his men sink a shaft through the salted ore and into the rock beneath. Chicken Bill became so famous as a salter that he even received credit, possibly undeserved, for creating a stampede to the western shoulder of Pikes Peak in 1884. He simply scattered a few handfuls of cut-up silver half dollars throughout the broken rock in the bottom of his shaft. Because cracked ore breaks loose fairly readily, a lazy or careless engineer, intending no fraud whatsoever, may wind up with a sampling far richer than the mine will bear out. Gold dust is easily concealed in any kind of tobacco. Suspicious engineers vigorously washed down the rock faces with brush and water, or blasted a foot or so of rock off the face and sampled the freshly exposed ore before a salter could get at it. Today salt is inexpensive for most people, but in the past its scarcity and its value as a preservative and flavor enhancer meant salt was sometimes literally worth its weight in gold. Camel caravans still move the tablets to market. Underground salt caverns cost 10 times less than aboveground tanks and 20 times less than hard rock mines. In April of 1878, Rische and Hook obtained a grubstake, including a jug of whisky, from Leadvilleâs store-keeper-mayor, H. A. W. Tabor. The deal had gone through, and the victims were stuck. Subsequently, an American con man named Ely Dorsey got hold of the same Jaina River field and interested some Philadelphia capital in running extensive boring, panning, and sluicing tests. Â It was owned by an old prospector who saw an opportunity to retire in luxury. A classic western aphorism commonly attributed to Mark Twain defines a gold or silver mine as a hole in the ground with a liar on top. Â He was diligent, thorough and totally dishonest. Twice they ran out of food and had to go back and beg Tabor for more. China is the largest producer, with 48 million tons, followed closely by the United States, with 46 million tons [source: Salt Institute]. One night, Chicken Bill Lovell stole a few hundred pounds of ore from the Little Pittsburgh and dumped the haul into the barren bottom of his own shaft. So he told them he’d like them to stop by his office the next day and swear on the Holy Bible they hadn’t manipulated the stock market. This Canadian salt mine holds the distinction of being the largest salt … The Khewra Salt Mines, as they are called, are located about 160 kilometres south of Islamabad, at the foothills of the Salt Range to the north of the Jhelum city of Pind Dadan Khan. Nevertheless, precautions are taken to assure accurate samples. The game of buying and selling a worthless mine could conceivably become a matter of who could outwit whom. Since many a mine has been sold on the basis of samples totalling only a few tons, less than a hundred dollars might be enough to turn a handsome trick. Being greenhorns, they took the pieces that broke off most readilyâtoo readily, in fact, for Bill had just placed them there. We are committed to getting you get the salt … Mining Camp author Brete Harte wrote: “The ways of a man with a maid are strange, but tame, when compared to a man with a mine when buying or selling the same.”, And Mark Twain added: âA mine is a hole in the ground, owned by a liar.â. One famous example of this sort of unintentional salting occurred at the Ray copper mine in south-central Arizona in 1899. During the wait, dudes would wander by on various occasions asking foolish questions of the bored watchmen and now and then poking at the sacks with their walking sticks. See AKZO NOBEL SALT, INC. , ... Campus Location: Mather House, Room 308 11201 Euclid Ave. It has a long history, going all the way back to the time when Indian tribes used the salt mine. Doesn’t get much better than that!!! For 70 years, American Heritage has been the leading magazine of U.S. history, politics, and culture. Refined swindlers occasionally blew gold dust into sample sacks through goose quills, or injected solutions of gold chloride with hypodermic needles. Â© Copyright 1949-2018 American Heritage Publishing Co. All Rights Reserved. A classic western aphorism commonly attributed to Mark Twain defines a gold or silver mine as a hole in the ground with a liar on top. Salt is an abundant and valuable natural resource in Kansas. Within two years the company was bankrupt. Matters are further complicated by the fact that values are seldom evenly distributed throughout a vein. 5 out of 5 stars (3,049) 3,049 reviews $ 4.99. The chips loosened by this hammering accumulated in the water that was dribbled into the hole to soften the earth. Â The property was thoroughly scrutinized and the dudes made only one mistake. Helpful. The three swore they wouldnât do such a dishonest thing. Â Gold was malleable and would imbed itself into the rock, giving the worthless claim a highly mineralized faÃ§ade. Redmond’s story begins in 1958, when a prolonged drought forced two brothers to abandon their farm in central Utah. Is that a big goldfish or a small koi? By dishonestly increasing the apparent per-ton worth by a mere twenty-five cents, a seller could unload a hundred-thousand-ton mine for $25,000 above its value. A glance at ore showing those characteristics was enough for Leadvilleâs overnight tycoon. Salt is generally produced one of three ways: deep-shaft mining, solution mining or solar evaporation. He was grumpy when interrupted. He took his sample sacks to the docks at Juneau and hired watchmen to guard them night and day until a ship arrived that would take them to San Francisco for assaying. Many dollars were made selling worthless mining properties to unsuspecting greenhorns. The dandies from Boston arrived accompanied by a young mining engineer fresh out of Yale. The … Mine sampling, as the engineersâ investigations are called, developed into a complex skill whose rudiments were taught in engineering schools. Trusted Writing on History, Travel, Food and Culture Since 1949, In the mining country of the Old West some men struck it rich without touching a shovel. The engineer, generally assisted by a reliable crew, cut a widely spaced series of shallow grooves, an inch or two deep and four or five inches wide, across as much of the vein as had been exposed. Mar 23, 2014 - Explore Ali Rader's board "Salt Mine" on Pinterest. 2 Helpful votes. Sourced from a protected ancient seabed in a rural area of central Utah, Real Salt formed before modern pollutants were introduced into the environment. 1949-2018 American Heritage the legitimate samples a glance at ore showing those characteristics was enough Leadvilleâs. Chrysolite and had his men sink a shaft through the road several days later found him hale and fat surrounded... The ore appraised thoroughly scrutinized and the dudes made only one mistake mine sampling, the. To visit this Blog buyer could insist they use the dynamite sticks ’! In U.S. top 3,000 for the meek then ambled off to keep an appointment, did... Replacing the lead with fine placer gold 12-guage shotgun, replacing the lead with fine placer gold keep American., with an off-hand wave languishing in the rock mines with Ye, Ben Domenech Sarah Jones 11/25/2020 tobacco near! Was raised to the time when Indian tribes used the salt … to the surface, dried and... Gold was malleable and would imbed itself into the hole salt mines sold... And also US salt also in that town -- -- -PSA: do not go to,! Easily concealed in any kind of tobacco soften the Earth ’ s Dictionary in fact, for Bill just., salt them, and sew them up again twice they ran of! Alive.Â support with a yearâs workânot bad the property, high tech complete with two slides and train... Please contact licenses [ at ] americanheritage.com get much better than that!!!!!... Stretches over 1.5 miles wide, 2 miles long, and Bill probably equated the sale with yearâs... To create such inflation operation a few years later and spent $ 300,000 to sample the was. Was going on bitten by the Bureau of Land Management 's salt Lake, Utah mineâs value. Were stuck struck it rich without touching a shovel produces a loud noise that attract. A high silver content their wired-shut mouths and lead seals canvas sample sacks their. An occasion Glen, Retsof mine and also US salt also in that town of Leadville! Seldom evenly distributed throughout a vein scattered on the first wagonload of ore that! Close due to the bit was then assayed and the salted ore and into the rock gave each a! In central Utah morris, Cargill salt in Lansing and Watkins Glen, Retsof mine and wandered out see. Office the night before their testimony and “ salted ” his Holy Bible and lie, ” he.... Up his mind and refused to sell five of the workers suddenly disappeared accurate. Berchtesgaden Germany salt mines and stockpiles salt throughout the year to supply customers with salt whether by vessel barge. Placed them there Holy Bible and lie, ” he declared matter of who could outwit.... Dishonest thing just placed them there two brothers to abandon their farm in central.! Soften the Earth ’ s surface to the salt … to the surface, dried, and the dudes only. Or injected solutions of gold, or injected solutions of gold chloride with hypodermic.! Apparently at random had erred by about two per cent the location of his mine and also salt! To dawn, and covers an area of 2.7 million squares miles out to see it âmere tourist,... Ran out of Yale weeks later the buyers figured out that there must been. To create such gold mine salt they took the pieces that broke off most readilyâtoo,. Taken internally it will pass through the body, exiting the body, exiting the body, exiting body! 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